I'm a clinical psychologist researcher who has studied ADHD for three decades. Ask me anything about the nature, diagnosis and treatment of ADHD.

The Internet is rife with misinformation about ADHD.  I've tried to correct that by setting up curated evidence at www.ADHDevidence.org.    I'm here today to spread the evidence about ADHD by answering any questions you may have about the nature , treatment and diagnosis of ADHD.

Do any particular food/food groups exacerbate ADHD?

Artificial food colorants have been shown to be a problem for some people with ADHD. No other foods are know to exacerbate the disorder.

what do you think is the easiest route for adults newly learning they have adhd to help treat themselves without a million steps that will inevitably leave them giving up and never actually helping (asking for a friend definitely not me)

1. Find a prescriber who is experienced in the treatment of ADHD with medications and adhere to the prescribed treatment.

2. If that treatment does not solve all issues, work with them to figure out what could be added, such as CBT.

What is the evidence that a low sugar or sugar free diet improves adhd symptoms?

Surprisingly, data show that sugar consumption does not worsen symptoms of ADHD. No special diet, except removing artificial food colorants, has been shown to help ADHD symptoms.

Do you have any pearls of wisdom that you think managers who manage employees with ADHD should know?

Encourage them to seek out evidence based treatments and to adhere to those treatments. Self help books by Russ Ramsey or Russ Barkley are also useful.

How does caffeine use interact with ADHD and executive functioning more generally?

Research shows that caffeine helps with alertness, vigilance, attention, reaction time and attention. Effects on memory and higher-order executive functions, like decision making are not as clear. But although it helps with some types of attention, it is not effective for treating the inattention of ADHD.

Any suggestions for healing from stigma and internalized ableism from the experience of being judged and bullied since childhood for a condition over which I have no control?

Stigma and bullying are such awful problems for so many people with ADHD. These are the types of questions for which psychotherapy may be useful. It is important to keep in mind that ADHD is a problem that affects a person, it does not define that person. People with ADHD have other strengths that they need to recognize in themselves even though others can make that difficult to do.

Can ADHD get confused for BPD? If so, what are the main differences you look for?

The two disorders are different enough that an expert diagnostician can tell the difference but they also co-occur which means that sometimes one of the disorders is not diagnosed when both occur in the same person.

What are some recommended treatments for individuals who have a history of abusing some of the typical medications prescribed for ADHD?

The non-stimulants: atomoxetine or the extended release versions of clonidine, guanfacine and viloxazine. CBT is ideal as an adjunct to medication.

What is the evidence that neuro feedback is helpful to those with ADHD?

The evidence from randomized controlled trials is very clear. NFB is not effective for treating symptoms of ADHD. It is not recommended in any guidelines for that reason.

What do you believe the most effective changes people with ADHD can make to improve their life and management of their ADHD?

1. Adhere to medications for ADHD as prescribed.

2. Learn the principles of CBT and apply them to everyday life.

3. Keep in mind that ADHD is only one part of your persona. Find your strengths and capitalize on them.